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Leash Reactivity Explained: Understanding Causes and Finding Solutions to Make Walks Fun Again for Everyone

Updated: Feb 10

Leash reactivity remains a prevalent issue among dog owners, often leading to stressful and challenging situations during walks.

Leash reactivity in dogs refers to a range of behaviours exhibited by a dog while on a leash in response to specific stimuli, such as other dogs, people, vehicles, or various environmental factors. These behaviours can include barking, lunging, growling, pulling, or snapping. It's important to note that leash reactivity is not necessarily a sign of aggression; rather, it often stems from fear, anxiety, frustration, or over-excitement.

Leash reactivity in dogs refers to a range of behaviours exhibited by a dog while on a leash in response to specific stimuli, such as other dogs, people, vehicles, or various environmental factors. These behaviours can include barking, lunging, growling, pulling, or snapping. It's important to note that leash reactivity is not necessarily a sign of aggression; rather, it often stems from fear, anxiety, frustration, or over-excitement.
Leash reactivity in dogs refers to a range of behaviours exhibited by a dog while on a leash in response to specific stimuli, such as other dogs, people, vehicles, or various environmental factors. These behaviours can include barking, lunging, growling, pulling, or snapping. It's important to note that leash reactivity is not necessarily a sign of aggression; rather, it often stems from fear, anxiety, frustration, or over-excitement.

Being a pawrent to a reactive, anxious, or aggressive dog is laden with unique challenges. This is a path I've personally navigated with Miles, my beloved late Boston Terrier, who himself showed all the above-mentioned behaviour labelled as “leash reactivity”. The decade we spent together, starting when he was six years old and joined our family, was a mix of beautiful moments and heart-wrenching, taxing, and overwhelming encounters with others. Our living situation in an apartment building was far from ideal for our circumstances, but it was our only option at the time, so we made the best of it.

Journeying with your dog who is struggling out and about on walks is often a path filled with navigating through other people's judgments and misconceptions. The burden of constant scrutiny can be overwhelming, leading to feelings of discouragement and, at times, utter heartbreak.

The emotions you're experiencing and have been grappling with are sincere, reflecting the depth of your love and care. You are entitled to your feelings, and it's completely valid to feel sadness and frustration over not having a dog that's universally friendly and non-reactive towards other dogs. It's okay to mourn the idea of the dog you hoped for but are not sharing your life with at present.

Navigating the complexities of living with a reactive dog, as illustrated through the journey with Miles and the challenges faced by your dog on walks, leads us to an important focus of this blog: understanding the concept of 'leash reactivity.' My aim is to shed light on what leash reactivity truly means, delve into its various causes, and explore effective strategies to help our dogs cope better with their environment. By doing so, we can work towards a future where both you and your furry companions can enjoy your walks together with greater peace and joy.

The causes of leash reactivity can vary. For some dogs, being on a leash can create a sense of restriction or vulnerability, limiting their ability to naturally investigate or retreat from stimuli, leading to a reactive response. For others, it may be a learned behaviour; for instance, a dog might learn that lunging and barking causes other dogs or people to go away, thus reinforcing this behaviour.

Addressing leash reactivity typically involves training and behaviour modification techniques that focus on desensitising the dog to the stimuli that trigger the reaction and teaching the dog alternative, more appropriate behaviours. This often includes building the dog's focus and calmness in the presence of these triggers, and rewarding non-reactive behaviour.

Understanding the Roots of Leash Reactivity

Leash reactivity originates from various underlying factors, and identifying these is crucial for effective management:

  1. Frustration-Induced Reactivity: This type of reactivity occurs in dogs that are generally social but become reactive when restrained by a leash. These dogs typically interact well with others off-leash but exhibit reactive behaviours like barking and lunging when constrained, driven by a desire to interact.

  2. Fear-Based Reactivity: In this case, dogs react out of discomfort or fear in the presence of other dogs or people. This defensive mechanism is distinct from aggression and is exacerbated by the inability to flee due to being leashed.

  3. Confidence-Related Reactivity: A common misconception is that most leash-reactive dogs are confident and confrontational. However, a small percentage of dogs do react from a place of confidence, actively seeking conflict. These dogs can pose a significant challenge and may require additional safety measures, such as muzzle training.

The Challenge of Differentiating Reactivity Causes

Identifying the specific cause behind a dog's reactive behaviour on a leash can be challenging. The overlap in behavioural symptoms between frustration-induced, fear-based, and confidence-related reactivity makes it difficult to pinpoint the exact driving force.

Therefore, enlisting the help of a professional behaviour consultant or a veterinary behaviourist is highly recommended. They have the expertise to unpack the underlying causes of a dog's reactivity, leading to a more successful and tailored training approach.

Understanding the root cause of a dog's leash reactivity is crucial for effective management and training, and this is where the concept of "LEGS" - Learning, Environment, Genetics, and Self - becomes pertinent. Each component of LEGS provides a unique perspective that contributes to the overall behaviour of a dog.

  1. Learning: This aspect covers the dog's training history and learned experiences. A dog's reaction on the leash might be a learned response based on past experiences, such as previous encounters with other dogs or people while on a walk. Understanding what the dog has learned about the world while on a leash is crucial in developing a counter-conditioning or desensitization plan.

  2. Environment: The environment in which a dog is raised and currently lives can significantly influence its behaviour. Factors like the dog's daily routine, the level of activity, the amount and type of socialization they've had, and the general household atmosphere all play a role. A stressful or chaotic environment, for instance, might contribute to heightened reactivity.

  3. Genetics: As discussed, genetics can predispose certain breeds to specific behaviors, including reactivity. Acknowledging these genetic traits helps in understanding the dog's natural inclinations and how they might be contributing to the reactivity seen on the leash.

  4. Self: This refers to the dog's individual temperament, health, and personality. Each dog is unique, and factors like age, health status (including pain and sensory impairments), and inherent personality traits can significantly impact their behavior.

By considering all these aspects - Learning, Environment, Genetics, and Self - one can develop a more holistic understanding of why a dog is exhibiting leash reactivity. This comprehensive approach enables the development of a more targeted and effective behavior modification plan, tailored to the individual needs of the dog.

Incorporating Control Unleashed Games and BAT 2.0

As part of the approach to managing leash reactivity, I highly recommend incorporating Leslie McDevitt's Control Unleashed games, like the "Look at That Game" or "1-2-3". These games are excellent for teaching dogs new coping skills. They assist in redirecting the dog's focus and behaviour positively, providing them with effective strategies to handle situations that might otherwise trigger their reactivity.

In addition to the Control Unleashed games by Leslie McDevitt, another highly effective approach for managing leash reactivity is Grisha Stewart's BAT 2.0 (Behaviour Adjustment Training) methodology. This technique is particularly beneficial for dogs that exhibit fear, frustration, or aggression towards certain stimuli. BAT 2.0 focuses on allowing the dog to explore and interact with their environment at a comfortable pace, using a system of guidance and support rather than force or correction. This training approach encourages and rewards calm, confident behaviours in the presence of previously triggering stimuli. It helps dogs learn to make positive choices and develop coping mechanisms, fostering a sense of safety and reducing their reactive responses. Grisha Stewart's method is a compassionate and empowering tool that enhances a dog's ability to navigate challenging environments and situations with greater ease and confidence.

In addressing dog leash reactivity, it's crucial to remember that walks should be enjoyable and stress-free for both you and your dog. If walks become a source of tension and anxiety, it might be wise to consider alternative options for your dog's exercise and mental stimulation. Changing the environment can have a significant positive impact. Opt for backyard playtime where your dog can freely explore and play in a familiar, secure setting. Enrichment activities at home can also be incredibly beneficial. These can include interactive toys, scent games, or obstacle courses that challenge and engage your dog's mind. Taking a break from regular walks doesn't mean neglecting your dog's physical and mental needs. It's about finding alternative ways to fulfill them in a manner that ensures comfort and joy for both of you. This approach not only helps in managing reactivity but also strengthens the bond between you and your dog, making every interaction a source of happiness.

Strategies for Managing Leash Reactivity
  1. Establishing a Marker Word: The initial step involves creating a positive association with a marker word (like "yes") in a distraction-free environment. This foundational step pairs a simple action, such as looking at a toy, with the marker word and a treat.

  2. Controlled Exposure Training: Gradually introduce your dog to more realistic scenarios in a controlled environment. This step aims to reinforce the dog's calm behaviour with treats when they notice another dog but do not react.

  3. Real-Life Application: After mastering controlled settings, apply these techniques in everyday situations. This phase involves managing the dog's environment and reinforcing calm behaviour with the marker word and treats.

  4. Increasing Independence: As your dog becomes more reliable in their responses, offer them more freedom during walks. This includes practicing the training while moving and introducing "the pause," giving the dog a moment to decide whether to look back at the owner for guidance.

  5. Ongoing Management and Adjustment: Depending on the dog's progress, some might require continuous management during walks, while others may gradually need less intervention.

In managing leash reactivity, it's essential to also consider other key factors that can influence your dog's behaviour and progress during walks:

Alleviating Frustration-Based Reactivity: 

To address frustration-based leash reactivity, it's crucial to fulfill the dog's need for interspecies social interactions, particularly dog-to-dog play. Allowing dogs to engage in play with other dogs in a safe and controlled environment can significantly reduce their frustration, as it satisfies their innate social needs. This approach helps to channel their energy positively and reduces the likelihood of reactive behaviour on the leash.

Creating a Safe Environment for Our Dogs

To help our dogs feel safe and secure, it's essential to create an environment that caters to their emotional and physical well-being. This includes providing a consistent routine, a safe space in the home, and positive, trust-building interactions. Regular exercise, mental stimulation through games and training, and socialization opportunities in a controlled manner are also crucial. By understanding and responding to our dogs' body language and stress signals, we can better support them in situations that may cause anxiety or fear.

Managing leash reactivity is a journey that requires patience, understanding, and consistent training. Each dog is unique, and tailoring the approach to their specific needs is key to effectively improving leash reactivity. For those needing more personalized guidance, consulting a professional behaviour Consultant or a Veterinary Behaviourist is highly recommended. With the right techniques and a bit of perseverance, walks can become enjoyable experiences for both you and your dog.



  1. Brophey, Kim. "Meet Your Dog." A comprehensive guide to understanding and nurturing the dog-human relationship.

  2. McDevitt, Leslie. "Control Unleashed: Creating a Focused and Confident Dog." The original approach to helping dogs learn to relax, focus, and work off-leash reliably in stimulating or stressful situations.

  3. McDevitt, Leslie. "Control Unleashed: Reactive to Relaxed." The newer version focusing on helping dogs with reactivity issues.

  4. Factors influencing the success of training Pet Dogs. PLOS ONE.

  5. Evolutionary analysis of the dynamics of viral infectious disease. Wiley Online Library.

  6. The impact of human-directed aggression and environmental factors on dog behavior. MDPI.

  7. Miklósi, Ádám. "Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition." Second Edition. A scientific investigation into the behavior and cognition of dogs.

  8. Stewart, Grisha. "BAT 2.0: Behavior Adjustment Training." Empowering dogs to be calm and confident in challenging environments.



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